How to Get Data with Python Script from Mikrotik Router

If you’re a network administrator or a system administrator who works with MikroTik routers, you know how important it is to be able to retrieve data from these devices in order to monitor and troubleshoot your network. While MikroTik provides its own software for managing its routers, you may find that it doesn’t meet all your needs or you may prefer to use Python for your automation tasks.

In this article, we’ll explore how to retrieve data from MikroTik routers using a Python script. Python is a powerful and versatile programming language that allows you to interact with various devices and APIs. By utilizing Python’s libraries and modules, you can easily communicate with a MikroTik router and retrieve data such as interface statistics, bandwidth usage, and system information.

The first step in retrieving data from a MikroTik router is to establish a connection. To do this, you’ll need the IP address of the router, as well as the username and password for authentication. Once the connection is established, you can use the RouterOS API to send commands to the router and retrieve the desired data.

In this article, we’ll cover the basics of connecting to a MikroTik router using Python and retrieving data. We’ll use the pyRouterOS library, which provides a Pythonic interface to communicate with the RouterOS API. We’ll also demonstrate how to retrieve interface statistics and bandwidth usage from the router and display the results in a user-friendly format.

What is MikroTik Router

MikroTik Router is a popular networking device that provides advanced routing, firewalling, and security functionalities. It is commonly used in small to medium-sized networks and is known for its reliability and flexibility.

With its powerful operating system, RouterOS, MikroTik Router enables network administrators to configure and manage various network services, such as dynamic routing protocols, VPNs, wireless access points, and quality of service (QoS) settings.

One of the key features of MikroTik Router is its ability to handle high network traffic, making it suitable for use in both residential and business environments. It supports multiple connectivity options, including Ethernet, fiber optics, and wireless connections, allowing for seamless integration into existing network infrastructures.

MikroTik Router also offers a range of security features to protect networks from unauthorized access and malicious attacks. This includes firewall rules, IPsec and SSL/TLS encryption, and user authentication mechanisms.

Furthermore, MikroTik Router provides extensive monitoring and reporting capabilities, allowing administrators to track network performance, troubleshoot issues, and analyze traffic patterns. It also supports remote management, enabling administrators to configure and monitor the router from anywhere.

Overall, MikroTik Router is a versatile and robust networking device that offers an array of features for building and managing efficient and secure networks. Its compatibility with Python scripting makes it an attractive choice for network administrators looking to automate network monitoring and management tasks.

Features of MikroTik Router

  • High-performance routing
  • Advanced firewall capabilities
  • Quality of Service (QoS) support
  • Load balancing and failover
  • Virtual Private Network (VPN) support
  • Dual-band wireless capabilities
  • Dynamic routing protocols support
  • Network monitoring and management
  • IPv6 support
  • Hotspot and captive portal functionality
  • User authentication and accounting
  • Bandwidth management and traffic shaping

Overall, MikroTik Router offers a comprehensive range of features that make it a powerful network device suitable for various applications, from small office setups to large enterprise networks.

Python Script for Retrieving Data

This section will cover the Python script required to retrieve data from a MikroTik router. To begin with, you will need to ensure that the RouterOS API package is installed. You can install it using the following command:

pip install RouterOS-api

After installing the package, you can start writing the Python script. First, import the necessary modules:

from routeros_api import RouterOsApiPool, ApiRosException

Next, establish a connection with the MikroTik router by providing the IP address, username, and password:

try:
api = RouterOsApiPool('192.168.0.1', username='admin', password='password', plaintext_login=True)
except ApiRosException as e:
print(f"An error occurred while connecting to the MikroTik router: {e}")
exit()

Once the connection is established, you can use the API methods to retrieve data from the router. Here is an example of retrieving the list of interfaces:

try:
response = api.api_export('/interface/print')
interfaces = response[0]['=name']
print("List of interfaces:")
for interface in interfaces:
print(interface)
except ApiRosException as e:
print(f"An error occurred while retrieving data from the MikroTik router: {e}")

In the above code, the api_export() method is used to export the requested data. The response is then parsed to extract the required information. Finally, the retrieved data is printed.

Remember to handle any exceptions that may occur during the data retrieval process. This will help you identify and resolve any issues that may arise.

With this Python script, you can easily retrieve data from a MikroTik router and process it according to your requirements.

Installation of Python

To retrieve data from MikroTik router using Python script, you need to have Python installed on your system. Follow these steps to install Python:

  1. Go to the Python website at https://www.python.org
  2. Click on the «Downloads» tab
  3. Choose the version of Python you want to install (recommended version is the latest stable version)
  4. Click on the download link for your operating system
  5. Once the installation file is downloaded, run the installer
  6. Follow the installation wizard instructions and select the appropriate options for your system
  7. Make sure to check the box that says «Add Python to PATH» during the installation process, so that Python is added to your system’s PATH environment variable
  8. Once the installation is finished, open a command prompt or terminal window
  9. Type python --version or python3 --version to check if Python is installed correctly

Now that you have Python installed on your system, you are ready to start retrieving data from MikroTik router using Python script.

Setting up the MikroTik Router

Before you can retrieve data from a MikroTik router using a Python script, you need to set up the router correctly. Follow the steps below to ensure your router is ready:

  1. Connect the MikroTik router to your computer. You can do this by using an Ethernet cable to connect the Ethernet port on your computer to one of the Ethernet ports on the router.
  2. Open a web browser and enter the default IP address of the MikroTik router in the address bar. The default IP address is usually «192.168.88.1». Press Enter to access the router’s web interface.
  3. Enter the default username and password. The default username is «admin», and the default password is blank. If you have changed these credentials in the past, enter the updated username and password.
  4. Once logged in, navigate to the «IP» menu and click on «Services». Make sure the API service is enabled by checking the «api» checkbox. You can also set a secure password for the API by entering it in the «api-ssl-password» field.
  5. Next, navigate to the «IP» menu again and click on «Firewall». Make sure that the firewall rules are configured to allow incoming connections to the API service. You can do this by adding a new rule that allows TCP connections to the API port (usually port 8728).
  6. Save your changes and exit the web interface.

Once you have completed the above steps, your MikroTik router will be set up for data retrieval using a Python script. You can now proceed to write your Python script to retrieve data from the router.

Python Libraries for MikroTik Router

Python provides several libraries that allow you to interact with MikroTik routers and retrieve data using Python scripts.

1. Paramiko: Paramiko is a Python implementation of the SSHv2 protocol, which allows you to establish secure connections and run commands on remote devices like MikroTik routers. With Paramiko, you can open an SSH session to the router, send commands, and retrieve the output.

2. Pyro: Pyro is another Python library that provides a higher-level API for interacting with MikroTik routers. It supports a wide range of functionality, including sending commands, retrieving data, parsing responses, and handling errors. Pyro simplifies the process of connecting to a router and executing commands, allowing you to focus on writing your application logic.

3. Netmiko: Netmiko is a multi-vendor library that provides a simplified API for network device automation. It includes support for MikroTik routers along with many other vendors. Netmiko abstracts the underlying SSH and telnet connections, making it easy to connect to a router, send commands, and retrieve output. It also provides additional features like configuration management and file transfers.

4. RouterOS API: The RouterOS API is a Python library specifically designed for interacting with MikroTik routers. It provides a low-level API that allows you to send RouterOS API commands, retrieve data, and handle responses. The RouterOS API library is ideal if you need full control over the communication with the router and want to directly access RouterOS-specific features.

5. Librouteros: Librouteros is another Python library that allows you to interact with MikroTik routers using the RouterOS API. It provides a higher-level API compared to the RouterOS API library, simplifying the process of sending commands and retrieving data. Librouteros also supports synchronous and asynchronous operations, making it suitable for both simple and complex applications.

These Python libraries provide a range of options for retrieving data from MikroTik routers using Python scripts. Depending on your specific requirements and preferences, you can choose the library that best suits your needs and start building your application.

Retrieving Data from MikroTik Router

In order to retrieve data from a MikroTik router using Python, we need to establish a connection to the router and send commands to retrieve the desired information. There are several methods and libraries available for this purpose, but one common approach is to use the «paramiko» library for SSH communication.

First, we need to install the «paramiko» library using pip:

pip install paramiko

Once installed, we can create a Python script to connect to the MikroTik router and retrieve data. Here is an example script:

import paramiko
# Configuring connection parameters
hostname = "192.168.0.1"
username = "admin"
password = "password"
# Create SSH client
ssh = paramiko.SSHClient()
ssh.set_missing_host_key_policy(paramiko.AutoAddPolicy())
# Connect to the router
ssh.connect(hostname, username=username, password=password)
# Send command to retrieve data
command = "/interface/print
"
stdin, stdout, stderr = ssh.exec_command(command)
# Read the output of the command
output = stdout.read().decode()
# Print the retrieved data
print(output)
# Close the SSH connection
ssh.close()

In this script, we first configure the connection parameters such as the hostname, username, and password. We then create an SSH client using the paramiko library and connect to the MikroTik router using the connect() method.

After establishing the connection, we send a command to retrieve the desired data using the exec_command() method. In this example, we are retrieving data from the «/interface» section of the router’s configuration.

We then read the output of the command using the stdout.read() method and decode it from bytes to a string. Finally, we print the retrieved data and close the SSH connection.

This is just a simple example, and you can modify the script to retrieve different types of data or perform other operations on the MikroTik router. The paramiko library provides various methods for executing commands, transferring files, and interacting with the router’s configuration.

By using the paramiko library and Python, you can easily retrieve data from a MikroTik router and automate various tasks and operations.

Establishing Connection to MikroTik Router

In order to retrieve data from a MikroTik Router using a Python script, we first need to establish a connection to the router. This can be done by using the paramiko library, which is a Python implementation of the SSH protocol.

Here are the steps to establish a connection to a MikroTik Router:

  1. Import the required libraries:
  2. import paramiko
  3. Create a connection object:
  4. ssh = paramiko.SSHClient()
  5. Set the policy to automatically add the hostname and public key of the remote server:
  6. ssh.set_missing_host_key_policy(paramiko.AutoAddPolicy())
  7. Specify the credentials for the router:
  8. hostname = '192.168.1.1'
    username = 'admin'
    password = 'password'
  9. Establish the connection:
  10. ssh.connect(hostname, username=username, password=password)

After following these steps, we will have successfully established a connection to the MikroTik Router. We can now proceed with retrieving data using the Python script.

Executing Commands on MikroTik Router

To execute commands on a MikroTik router using Python, you can make use of the SSH protocol. The SSH protocol allows you to securely connect to the router and execute commands remotely.

To establish an SSH connection in Python, you can use a library like Paramiko. Paramiko provides functions to create an SSH client and execute commands on the remote router.

First, you need to install the Paramiko library by running the following command:

pip install paramiko

Once the library is installed, you can import it into your Python script:

import paramiko

To connect to the MikroTik router, you will need the router’s IP address, username, and password. You can create an SSH client object and connect to the router using these credentials:

router_ip = "192.168.0.1"
username = "admin"
password = "password"
ssh_client = paramiko.SSHClient()
ssh_client.set_missing_host_key_policy(paramiko.AutoAddPolicy())
ssh_client.connect(router_ip, username=username, password=password)

Once you are connected, you can execute commands on the router using the exec_command function of the SSH client. For example, to retrieve information about the interfaces on the router, you can use the interface print command:

stdin, stdout, stderr = ssh_client.exec_command("interface print")
# Retrieve the command output
output = stdout.read().decode()
# Print the output
print(output)

You can parse the output and extract the information you need from it.

Remember to close the SSH connection once you are done executing commands:

ssh_client.close()

Executing commands on a MikroTik router using Python can be useful for automating tasks, gathering information, and managing network devices remotely.

Retrieving Specific Data from MikroTik Router

To retrieve specific data from a MikroTik router using a Python script, you can follow these steps:

  1. Establish a connection to the MikroTik router using the RouterOS API.
  2. Send an API request to the router to retrieve the desired data.
  3. Receive the API response from the router.
  4. Parse the response to extract the specific data you are interested in.

Here is an example code snippet that demonstrates how to retrieve the IP address from a MikroTik router:

import librouteros
api = librouteros.connect(
username='admin',
password='password',
host='192.168.88.1'
)
response = api(cmd='/ip/address/print')
for record in response:
print(record['address'])

In this example, we first import the librouteros library and establish a connection to the MikroTik router by specifying the username, password, and IP address of the router. Then, we send an API request to the router to print the IP addresses configured on the router. Finally, we iterate over the response and print each IP address.

By modifying the API request and the parsing logic, you can retrieve other specific data from the MikroTik router, such as interface statistics, firewall rules, or DHCP leases. The key is to understand the RouterOS API and its available commands and data structures.

Remember to handle exceptions and error cases properly in your Python script to ensure reliable retrieval of data from the MikroTik router.

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